Lol – Lorelei is American, not Greek! Some linguists think that Greek is the basis of Latin, therefore the foundation for most Southern-European languages (French, Italian, Spanish, Romanian). I found it fascinating, though sorry to hear some of it ended with people dying. share. So much I didn’t know and I am grateful you could share it. We don’t even say Merry Christmas anymore because newcomers are offended or can be because it is contrary to their religious beliefs. Ultra fascinating read both in terms of main content and comments! That’s awesome! Sigh… Yes, plus too many subjects are left out of Greek classrooms for fear of offending one group or another. Speaking in flawless idiomatic Greek on April 13 at the Cotsen Hall of the Gennadeios library, belonging to the prestigious American School of Classical Studies in Athens, professor Mackridge gave a lecture entitled Katharevousa, Demotic and Greek National Identity from the 18th Century to the 1976 Language Reform. My mind seems to, well, have a mind of its own… . I have no doubt I’ll find a way to work this into my writing! No this and no that because…same reasons. Nov 21, 2014 | Fun Historical Facts, Random Musings. Diglossias can be stable for centuries, with a High variant that nobody speaks natively, and that can be at times artificial: just ask Arabic. In 1956 the Institute for Modern Greek Studies was founded with the aim of promoting the survival and expansion of the pro-Demotiki ideology. Very interesting. Examples of texts written in vernacular Greek prior … As a adjective greek is (greek).As a noun greek is nonsense writing or talk; gibberish. . Ever since Hellenistic times when the language started to change perceptibly, there have always been those trying to promote a 'purist' form of Greek (which is what katharevousa means) and to combat linguist 'degradation', as they saw it. These include the war that started when someone sat on the wrong piece of furniture (“war of the golden stool”) and a ten-month-long war that started when someone chopped down a flagpole…. Koine eventually was separated into two groups: literary Koine and popular Koine. Thank you, Philip , I thoroughly enjoyed the history of this Nicholas! I would have had no occasion to hear of this had I not read it here. Originally, it was widely used both for literary and official purposes, though seldom in daily language. Following Greece’s 1821 war of independence, a number of scholars led by Adamantios Korais rejected these influences and argued in favor of a return to a more classical language. Greek studies departments are being set up in countries such as Uzbekistan, Jordan and Tunisia. Finally, in 1982, the left came to power after more than 50 years, following a seven-year-long military junta (1967-1974). The learned registers employed grammatical and lexical forms in imitation of classical Attic Greek (). Wonderful article! In Greece Modern Greek otherwise known as Demotic is used in every day life. Katharevousa (Καθαρεύουσα, literally "purifying [language]") is a conservative form of the Modern Greek language conceived in the late 18th century as a compromise between Ancient Greek and the Demotic Greek of the time. Use of the Demotic dialect in state speech and paperwork was forbidden. I would add Hellenistic Greek to this list; the language in which the Gospels were written. Interestingly enough, one of the first laws passed concerned the language. ), katharevousa won insofar as it continues to influence spoken and written Greek. They arbitrarily chose the language of the Hellenistic period as a point of reference, probably because this was the language the Gospels were written in, therefore people were more familiar with it. , Hi Nicholas, Just go to my basic-format blog. SMG today incorporates many katharevousa elements. The long history of Greek was bound to generate problems for its users. Thank goodness I choose to study Latin at school. In January 1976, by government order, it became the official language of the state, replacing Katharevusa Greek (q.v.) I’ll just say, enjoy the torrent of compliments coming your way , Aw, thank you so much!! So I guess your children’s book will not be written in Katharevousa but in Demotiki? If that’s the case, then it’s a fairly common name, although not as common as, say, Maria or Eleni. As adjectives the difference between greek and demotic is that greek is (greek) while demotic is of or for the common people. What a succinct explanation of the two Greek forms. I am not where I can look it all up. Greek is a highly inflected language and belongs to the Indo-European family of languages. I didn’t know any of this history. Absolutely loved this article! . While literary Koine was used in both spoken and written form by the educated upper classes and intellectuals, popular Koine served as the vernacular among the common people. Even in Greece most people have forgotten all about it. The koine of the New Testament and early common era is clearly different from Classical (the move from second year to third was even worse that first (Classical) to second (Homeric)) and seems markedly different from either modern form or the stuff that ciruclated for a millennium in the Byzatine world. Interested in finding out more about Katharevousa? Thanks! Katharevousa (Greek: Καθαρεύουσα, (Modern Greek: /kaθaˈrevusa/, lit. There are four major forms of the Greek language. Through katharevousa many new words were coined in the 19th century, always respecting Ancient Greek. Ebonics anyone? Find link is a tool written by Edward Betts.. searching for Demotic Greek 30 found (140 total) alternate case: demotic Greek Emmanuel Kriaras (528 words) exact match in snippet view article find links to article He was a student of Jean Psychari and the practice and ideology of demotic Greek.Kriaras was born in Piraeus in Attica, Greece in 1906 and spent his We’re a a weird species alright… . Once political factions started taking sides, the passions surrounding the two versions of the language became so strong, that in the late 19th/early 20th century their respective defenders actually fought in the streets, triggering, quite literally, a minor civil war. Also, the Koine is fairly similar to Katharevousa, as Korais based the latter on it. Biggus Dickus (from Life of Brian) comes to mind… . I learned there was formal Latin, clergy Latin, and common Latin. The Greek language question (το γλωσσικό ζήτημα, to glossikó zítima) was a dispute about whether the language of the Greek people (Demotic Greek) or a cultivated imitation of Ancient Greek (katharevousa) should be the official language of the Greek nation. Katharevousa is a see also of greek. Demotic Greek (language of the people) is the modern vernacular form of the Greek language, and refers particularly to the form of the language that evolved naturally from ancient Greek, in opposition to the artificially archaic Katharevousa, which was the official standard until 1976. There had always existed a tendency towards a state of diglossia between the Attic literary language and the constantly developing spoken Koine, which eventually evolved into Demotic Greek. Its funny that although I love Greece so much, other than its fab mythology, I know very little about its history. See more. Same in schools. Tensions ebbed and flowed throughout the 20th century. The two complemented each other in a typical example of diglossia until the resolution of the Greek language question in favour of Demotic. I hate spammers as much as you and only send an email once a month tops, always filled with news of genuine interest. And the comments are as interesting as the post! Katharevousa synonyms, Katharevousa pronunciation, Katharevousa translation, English dictionary definition of Katharevousa. Absoloutely you need higher level of education. Even today, Cretan Greek has marked differences from, say, Corfiot Greek. Detective Mika Pensive has a new partner. While many aspects of contemporary spoken Greek show victories for demotic (θα vs. θέλει + INF, η πόλη vs. η πόλις, etc. At the same time, Greek was spoken differently in various parts of the country. Yes, of course. Which probably explains why you still love the country… . By doing so, they gained an important ally: the Greek Orthodox Church. A learned, archaising form of Modern Greek, the artificial Greek language based on Classical Greek, used for formal and official purposes, primarily written but not used for conversation. sa (kä′thä-rĕv′o͞o-sä′) n. The puristic, archaizing form of Modern Greek, having morphological and lexical features borrowed from Koine. How very interesting, Nicholas. Demotic refers particularly to the form of the language that evolved naturally from ancient Greek, in opposition to the artificially archaic Katharevousa, which was the official standard until 1976. This is the language as it had been shaped by the centuries, acknowledging and accepting the various influences, from the Byzantine to the Ottoman empire. It became the official Modern Greek in 1976 when Katharevousa was replaced, and was written in polytonic script until 1982, and in monotonic script after 1982. Now someone has written that there are four formal Greek languages. On the other hand, early liberals and the majority of people, supported Demotiki. As a verb greek is (computing) to display a placeholder instead of text, especially to optimize speed in displaying text that would be too small to read. A typical example is the army and the clergy, who use specific words and acronyms. I’d never heard that there was any friction betwee the two Greek languages. I wonder if a similar language barrier formed prior to the French Revolution. In my experience, man will find any excuse to fight. And an android. ), Ah, the pitfalls of automatic translation… I have a scheduled post that deals with that subject, which I think you will enjoy . 1st century BC; Medieval Greek is the language of the Byzantine Empire and Modern Greek is Demotiki as spoken since the 19th century. Good detail for world-building. But Finnish and Hungarian are from a different group (not provably related to Greek) and Turkish even more so, though all have borrowed from one another over the centuries. n. The puristic, archaizing form of Modern Greek, having morphological and lexical features borrowed from Koine. Even today, Cretan Greek has marked differences from, say, Corfiot Greek. Synonyms . ", As Mackridge explained in an article published in the Paideia supplement of the Athens News on 9 September 2005, "Korais had to deal with opposition from two sides: the archaists who wanted to impose Ancient Greek as the language of the state and education, and the vernacularists who argued that the official language should be as close as possible to the modem spoken language." What you wrote is the literal translation for “you’re welcome” – ie what you’d use when a guest arrives to your house. Re the “you’re welcome” bit (ambiguous meanings for phrases), my French professor retired after my freshman year in college and I worked hard at corresponding with him in French. It’s great that you know so much about our language, Mihran! Predictably, Katharevousa became the formal language of the new state. And the Byzantine era had further changed Greek. . I can’t wait to read this! I don’t remember the ‘hi’ from before which was why I got confused. Thank you. Did you just add the ‘hi’ or was I being very stupid?! When I explained that Demetrios might be used in official documents, but everyone will use Dimitris in everyday life, I felt compelled to offer some back story. Curious, though – is the internet having an effect on Greek as it is on many other languages? And I can’t help but feel proud seeing so many of your readers appreciating the extra insight into the history of Greek language. Of course, Germanic languages are cousins to Greek as well (also Persian and Indian and Slavic languages — which latter also borrowed a lot from Greek — and a bunch more). Lol! In Katharevousa Greek it's Hellas as well, and people generally may use Hellas or Ellas as well in Demotic Greek. Part of this reformation referred to the use of a single dot above vowels to indicate intonation (monotonic), replacing the Hellenistic usage of half a dozen different signs (polytonic). This is not shared with third parties. Ever since the Roman captain, who arrested him some 19 centuries ago, asked St Paul in, wonderment "cans't thou speak Greek?" Weird. I’m surprised by your statement that it’s dissimilar to the rest. The Greek translation for Lorelei is probably Δάφνη, or Daphne, as laurel/bay is translated into Greek. Scholars and laymen interested in this issue are anticipating with some trepidation a book currently being prepared by an academic who is a consummate speaker, writer and student of Modern Greek: Peter Mackridge, professor emeritus of Modern Greek at Oxford University. I wanted to wish him well, so I wrote “Bonne fortune!” He wrote back that that phrase meant “do well financially” and what I should have said was “Bonne chance!” (good luck! In Canada, we are called the melting pot. Korais created, for instance, the word politismos for civilisation, while famelia became oikogeneia (family), kontrabando became lathremporio, ministros became ypourgos and so forth. Great post. Thanks for liking it – and thanks in advance for sharing! He's hot. I vividly remember the fiery reaction against this, especially by the Church, as I was a highschool student at the time – and had finally managed to master the old spelling…. Because you’re absolutely right – I, too, mentioned the Koine (aka Hellenistic) in my reply to him. On the one hand were the 'purifiers' - the most renowned of which was Adamantios Korais (1748-1833) - and on the other the 'demoticists' supporting the language of the 'demos' (lay people) called 'demotiki'. The language had changed even more in the years leading to Alexander’s Hellenistic period, when Greek picked a number of words used in Alexander’s empire. Apologies for the confusion. As most of you know, even though a native English speaker, I grew up in Greece. I’m worried that a fifth Greek got lost in the lists. Pity, isn’t it? Your email address will not be published. Edit: forgot to clarify. Although Katharevousa was introduced relatively recently, the concept of a conservative literary version of Greek had been present since the times of Koine Greek. Well, ancient Greek and Latin were cousins and Latin did borrow from Greek, so it relation is a little like English to French, but not like French to Latin. During the 400-year-long Ottoman occupation, the language picked up a number of Turkish words. Thanks. One thing rather delighted me – I’ve not met anyone yet with the name of Lorelei so I had no idea it was a common Greek name. You are right; Homeric Greek is hard even for me to understand. It’s also the one Katharevousa was largely based on. I learned similar things about Latin while doing book research. I find it quite similar to the Classical one, at least as spoken by Lysias. I love history. Thank you. Roots and history: Demotic and Katharevousa. Please read my Privacy Policy to find out how this may be used.This website includes affiliate links. Thanks for the comment and welcome! Funny. Ancient Egypt also comes to mind, where the clergy were the only ones who knew how to read and write. What an interesting article! Demotic is often thought to be the same as the modern Greek language, but these two terms are not completely synonymous. Required fields are marked *. It was thus that "Greek cultural leaders decided that the unity of the national language should be not only synchronic (geographical) but also diachronic (historical)". Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. A Heaven for Toasters, only $2.99 or FREE with Kindle Unlimited. On one hand, you had the ruling classes (conservatives, royalists and the Church) who favoured Katharevousa. . Demotic Greek (uncountable) The Modern Greek vernacular language. The Greek language question (Greek: το γλωσσικό ζήτημα, to glossikó zítima) was a dispute about whether the language of the Greek people (Demotic Greek) or a cultivated imitation of Ancient Greek (katharevousa) should be the official language of the Greek nation. Attic vs. Koine: Controversy in the Greek Language. In 1888, Yannis Psycharis, a Greek linguist teaching in Paris, launched a polemical book called My Journey. Therefore it can be argued that Greek is the cornerstone of all western languages (except for the Finnish, of course). The Anglo-Saxon languages originated as Germanic ones, of course, but also have been heavily influenced by Latin. A computer, for instance, became ypologistí in Standard Modern Greek, a router dromologití, and a printer an ektypotís (unless you mean the profession, which is a typographos ). What is perhaps less known is that Modem Greek - the only language directly spawned from ancient Greek unlike the many romance languages deriving from Latin - is actually undergoing a kind of mini-renaissance. You’d say παρακαλώ in this case. You will probably enjoy this post: https://www.cracked.com/article_17123_the-5-most-retarded-wars-ever-fought.html , with its list of five weird excuses for going to war. Any links? During Greece’s civil war (1946-1949, or 1943-1949 according to others) both Communists and Royalists used the language to easily distinguish their followers from their opponents. Nowadays you can still hear Katharevousa at church, where some priest or other will occasionally give a speech in a bastardized version of it. But the language itself had changed significantly through the ages: 9th-century BC Homeric Greek was quite different from the 5th-century language Pericles used. Modern Greek; New Greek Linguistic purism, he argued, acted as a distraction from Greece's mission. ". Korais and the rest of the so-called archaists solved this conundrum by creating a hybrid language called Katharevousa (“Clean”). The Homeric language, on the other hand, is a really tough nut to crack, at least for me. This was one of those little known (outside of Greece, obviously) historical items that I love to learn. Also, some dates for anyone not familiar with these: Homeric Greek is circa 9th century BC; Classical Greek is the Athenian Greek of 5th century BC; Hellenistic Greek was ca. Reply. Seriously??? At the same time, Greek was spoken differently in various parts of the country. I was thinking of you when I was writing it, and your fascinating posts on Irish history and mythology. "pure [language]"), is a form of the Modern Greek language conceived in the early 19th century as a compromise between Ancient Greek and the Demotic Greek of the time. I’m a bit of a history buff, and I’ve never heard this story. BTW: if Google translates gets it wrong, it’s not my fault! , Actually, it’s more common a mistake than you might think. Maybe it’s an indicator of a rift between aristocrats and the public. Who said man only fights for religion or freedom…something as simple as language can trigger fierce passion! Korais and the rest of the so-called archaists solved this conundrum by creating a hybrid language called Katharevousa (“Clean”). In this context Dimotiki describes the specific non-standardized vernacularforms of Greek used by the vast majority of Greeks t… As always, Wikipedia comes to the rescue. So interesting how language is a tool to separate “us” from “them.” Nothing new and unfortunately still alive and well on our planet. Georgios Mistriotis regularly referred to katharevousa in 1908 as a bastion resisting external invasions and an anchor holding Greece steady, thus using metaphors of immobility, while the demoticists depicted the Greeks as thinking freely, dynamic and eager for action. I’m going to share it in at least two places! Think of demotic as standard spoken Greek and Katharevousa as the Greek equivalent of Nynorsk only sort of less artificial. Είστε ευπρόσδεκτοι! Georgios Mistriotis regularly referred to katharevousa in 1908 as a bastion resisting external invasions and an anchor holding Greece steady, thus using metaphors of immobility, while the demoticists depicted the Greeks as thinking freely, dynamic and eager for action. Demotic refers particularly to the form of the language that evolved naturally from Ancient Greek, in opposition to the artificially archaic Katharevousa, which was the official standard until 1976. She had encountered it as both Demetrios and Dimitris, and could not understand when each form would be used. What a fascinating history for a language! I’ll have to share with a lot of American friends with Greek roots who’d be delighted to know more about their ancestors’ language. On this basis, professor Mackridge concluded, "the Modern Greeks would resemble the ancient Athenians. I’ve been honored with your choice to let me read Runaway Smile early on and I can vouch for its delightful story and the utterly sweet ending. Wow, high praise indeed. In it he argued that unless Greece became a modern nation rooted in contemporary reality instead of indulging in ancestor worship she would never be able to free the Greeks from still living under Ottoman rule. The Colonels had supported wholeheartedly Katharevousa, despite the fact that the vast majority of people preferred Demotiki. The last two are more easy to read and to understand general the meaning. Demotic Greek language, also called Romaic, Greek Demotiki, or Romaiki, a modern vernacular of Greece.In modern times it has been the standard spoken language and, by the 20th century, had become almost the sole language of Greek creative literature. He pointed out in his 13 April 2006 lecture: ''The antithesis... is clear from various metaphors that were used to refer to the language. ", http://www.helleniccomserve.com./contents.html. Katharevousa. The matter was finally settled after the colonels' fall. It is called Modern Greek to distinguish it from Ancient Greek, or Demotic Greek to distinguish it from “Katharevousa”, a hybrid of Ancient Greek and Colloquial Greek introduced as the “official” language, after the War of independence (1821). There are all sorts of new words popping up, from τουιτάρω (to tweet) to Λάικ (Like). Church documents also use it on an everyday basis, complete with the Hellenistic spelling. 12. It’d almost be funny if people didn’t end up dead! Katharevousa (Greek: Καθαρεύουσα, pronounced [kaθaˈrevusa], literally "purifying [language]") is a conservative form of the Modern Greek language conceived in the late 18th century as a compromise between Ancient Greek and the Demotic Greek of the time. The conversion of Greek prose fiction and drama from katharevousa to demotic occurred with great rapidity. As nouns the difference between greek and demotic is that greek is nonsense writing or talk; gibberish while demotic is (linguistics) language as spoken by the common people. "Katharevousa was not so much a language," professor Mackridge explained, "as a tendency, a process, a purifying mechanism that expunged many non-Greek features from the language and enriched it with thousands of newly coined words based on Ancient Greek. The common version has a more impressive name, but it escapes me at the moment. My bilingual status makes me uniquely qualified to describe the unusually passionate relationship Greeks have with their language. In Greece most people have forgotten all about it, how Amazon Plans Conquer... Problems for its users right ; Homeric Greek is the cornerstone of all western languages except! The Hellenistic spelling use specific words and acronyms a native English speaker, I up... The torrent of compliments coming your way, Aw, thank you so much!! 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